Marshal of Italy Armando Diaz
Born: 5 Dec 1861 Naples, Italy
Died: 28 Feb 1928 Rome, Italy
Allegiance: Kingdom of Italy
Service/branch: Royal Italian Army
Years of service: 1884–1924
Rank: General, Marshal of Italy
Unit: 49th Division of XXIII Corps
Battles/wars: Italo-Turkish War
World War I; Battle of the Piave, Battle of Vittorio Veneto
Honors and awards:
Supreme Knight of the Order of the Most Holy Annunciation (1919); Knight Grand Cross with Grand Cordon of the Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus; Knight Grand Cross of the Military Order of Savoy (1918); Silver Medal of Military Valor; War Merit Cross, twice; Commemorative Medal for the Italo-Turkish war; Commemorative Medal for the Italo-Austrian war 1915-18; Commemorative Medal for the Unification of Italy; Commemorative Medal for the Italian victory; Bailiff Grand Cross of Honor and Devotion of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta; Médaille militaire (France); Distinguished Service Medal (United States); Croix de guerre 1914–1918 (France); Croix de guerre 1914–1918 (Belgium); Commanders Cross of the Order of Virtuti Militari (Poland); Honorary Degree from Providence College (1921).
Armando Diaz, 1st Duke of the Victory, was an Italian general and a Marshal of Italy. He is mostly known for his role as Chief of Staff of the Regio Esercito during World War I. On the outbreak of World War I, he was assigned to the high command as head of the unit’s operations, under General Luigi Cadorna. He was promoted to 2-star general in June 1916, and assumed the command of the 49th division and then the 23rd army corps.
The Battle of Caporetto, in October 1917, was disastrous to the army, and on 8 Nov 1917, he was called to succeed Cadorna as chief of general staff. Having recovered what remained of the army, he organized the resistance in 1917 on the Monte Grappa massif and along the Piave River, which successfully halted the Austrian offensive. In the summer of 1918, he oversaw the victory in the Battle of the Piave River and, later that year, he led the 1.4 million Italian troops in the Battle of Vittorio Veneto, which ended the war on the Italian front. With his famous Bollettino della Vittoria (Victory Address), he communicated the rout of the Austrian army and the victory of the Italians in the war.
cooperate with the British forces at Ypres and the Somme. At the end of 1916, partly owing to the disappointing results of the latter offensive and partly owing to wartime political rivalries, Foch was transferred to Italy.
Foch was ultimately appointed “Commander-in-Chief of the Allied Armies” on 26 March 1918 following being the Commander-in-Chief of Western Front with title Généralissime in 1918. He played a decisive role in halting a renewed German advance on Paris in the Second Battle of the Marne, after which he was promoted to Marshal of France. Addington says, “to a large extent the final Allied strategy which won the war on land in Western Europe in 1918 was Foch’s alone.”
On 11 November 1918 Foch accepted the German request for an armistice. Foch advocated peace terms that would make Germany unable to pose a threat to France ever again. Foch considered the Treaty of Versailles too lenient on Germany and as the Treaty was being signed on 28 June 1919, he declared: “This is not a peace. It is an armistice for twenty years”. His words proved prophetic: the Second World War started twenty years and 64 days later.
Marshal Ferdinand Jean Marie Foch
Born: 2 Oct 1851 Tarbes, in the Hautes-Pyrénées region, France
Died: 20 March 1929 Paris, France
Service/branch: French Army
Years of service: 1870–1923
Rank: Marshal of France; Field marshal (United Kingdom); Marshal of Poland; 22nd Royal First Honorary Colonel Général de division.
Commands held: Marshal of France (1918) 6 Aug 1918 prior offensive; Commander-in-Chief of Allied Forces 26 March 1918; Commander-in-Chief of Western Front with title bearing Généralissime, 1918; Assistant Commander-in-Chief of the Northern Zoneunder Joseph Joffre, autumn 1914; commander of Ninth Army, summer 1914; commander of XX Corps, 1914; Moroccan Division Detachment, 1914; Regimental Colonel of the35th Artillery Regiment, 1903.
Battles/wars: Franco-Prussian War; First World War: Battle of the Frontiers, Third Battle of Artois, Battle of the Somme, Spring Offensive, Meuse-Argonne Offensive
Awards: Légion d’honneur (Grand Cross); Médaille militaire; Croix de guerre; Order of Leopold (Grand Cross); Order of Ouissam Alaouite (Grand Cross); Order of the White Eagle; Virtuti Militari (Grand Cross); Order of St. George (2nd Class); Order of the Bath (Honorary Grand Cross)’ Order of the Redeemer; Order of Merit; Distinguished Service Order; Distinguished Service Medal (US).
Marshal Ferdinand Jean Marie Foch was a French general and military theorist who served as the Supreme Allied Commander during the First World War. An aggressive, even reckless commander at the First Marne, Flanders, and Artois campaigns of 1914–1916, Foch became the Allied Commander-in-Chief in 1918 and successfully coordinated the French, British, American, and Italian efforts into a coherent whole, deftly handling his strategic reserves
At the outbreak of war in Aug 1914, Foch’s XX Corps participated in the brief invasion of Germany before retreating in the face of a German counter-attack and successfully blocking the Germans short of Nancy. Ordered west to defend Paris, Foch’s prestige soared as a result of the victory at the Marne, for which he was widely credited as a chief protagonist while commanding the French Ninth Army. He was then promoted again to Assistant Commander-in-Chief for the Northern Zone, a role which evolved into command of Army Group North, and in which role he was required to co